Cavities in teeth, tooth decay and dental caries is the most common disorder today. Not only kid\'s people irrespective of their age could be suffering from tooth decay. Bacteria and a diet rich in sugar and starch are considered to be the major culprit. Whenever we consume breads, cereals, cakes, fruit, bacteria residing in our mouth act upon these foods and turn them into acids. The saliva when combined with acids forms plaque which gets deposited on the teeth enamel. This plaque first goes on to damaging the enamel and if not paid heed would eventually damage the inner layer i.e. the dentin.
Causes of Cavities :
The plaque accumulates in the pits, fissures, gum line and damages the tooth surface. Sensitivity to cold or hot or sweets, persistent pain could be some of the signs which indicate that it is the time to visit the dentist. Your dentist with the help of a dental instrument would look for the surface which has turned soft. If necessary, X-ray could also be performed to get more clarity. Sometimes ultrasound or fibre optic transilluminations are some other methods to detect the cavities in teeth.
Treatment for Cavities :
As always said that prevention is better than cure, we could maintain a healthy dental regime. Apart from that we could make slight changes in the diet like restricting on foods which are rich in starch and sugar. Chewing Xylitol would really help as it prevents the plaque formation thus help in protecting tooth enamel. Brushing, floss and then mouthwash- following this procedure would limit the bacteria formation and thus prevent tooth decay. Also, regular visit to the dentist will help you maintain healthy teeth.
Remineralisation is another process whereby treatment is done through fluoride or calcium. Both substances would strengthen the tooth enamel and help fight tooth decay. But if remineralisation is not possible which could be due to large cavity, then restoration is preferred. Composite or silver amalgam filling could be used if the cavity is not that too large. But if tooth decay is much large, then the dentist would use crowns. These crowns are made of zirconium, porcelain, or gold. Root canal would be done if the damage has percolated to the centre of the tooth. Dental implants and bridges are also other preferred methods to cure tooth decay.