Oncology is a branch of medicine dealing with cancer. It is concerned with diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of cancer patients. Medical practitioner who practices oncology is an oncologist.
Disease and conditions
Bladder cancer – Smoking is the main cause of bladder cancer as carcinogens are absorbed into the lungs and enter the bloodstream. When kidney filters the blood and the waste is then converted in urine, which is drained out to the bladder. The carcinogens remain in urine and damage the cells in bladder, leading to cancer.
Breast cancer – The malignant tumors forms from cells in the breast. Age, family and personal history of breast cancer, heredity breast cancer, and alcohol consumption triggers breast cancer.
Colon cancer – Cancer that occurs in the large intestine is colon cancer. People are at higher risk of developing colon cancer if they are above 60 years and had family history of colon cancer and previously had breast cancer. Certain medical condition like inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal polyps also causes colon cancer.
Endometrial cancer – A cancer developed in the lining of the uterus in women (endometrial) is an endometrial cancer. Several factors (such - as never being pregnant, diabetic, obesity and personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer) cause endometrial cancer.
Kidney cancer – The malignant cells occurs from tubules of the kidney.
Lung cancer – In lung cancer, cancerous cells develop in the tissue of lungs.
Leukemia – In this type of cancer, blood-forming cells in the body are affected. The condition refers to presence of an abundance of abnormal white-blood cells in the body.
Melanoma – It is a type of skin cancer that often begins in the skin including under fingernails, eyeball and toenails.
Lymphoma – Lymphatic system is affected in lymphoma cancer. In this condition, cells in the lymph nodes begin to multiply rapidly, thus developing malignant.
Prostate cancer – The prostate gland, located beneath the bladder, is affected in men. Patient experiences pain during urination and presence of blood in urine.
Pancreatic cancer –Pancreas are affected from cancer. The cells producing digestive enzymes are affected in pancreatic cancer.
Thyroid cancer – The cancerous growth in thyroid gland is the thyroid cancer. Types of thyroid cancer includes - Anaplastic carcinoma, Follicular carcinoma, Medullary carcinoma, Papillary carcinoma
Tests, treatments, drugs and diagnose
After determining the symptoms experienced by the patient, physical examination is done to reveal the location of malignancy. Diagnostic methods used in cancers includes biopsy (incisional or excisional), endoscopy, blood tests, radiology techniques such as CT scan, X-rays, MRI scan, ultrasound, and PET scan, and methods of nuclear medicine such as scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography.
Depending on the stage and severity of cancer, treatment is recommended by oncologist. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery are the available options for treating the cancer.
When to call oncologist?
Early diagnosis of cancer can be treated but once the cancer reaches an advanced stage it is difficult to treat it. Consult the oncologist if you experience any symptoms of cancer.