Urology is a medical speciality concerned with disorders and treatment of the Genito-Urinary organs of males and females including adrenal glands, ureters, kidney, urinary bladder, genitalia, urethra, and prostate. Physician specialized in treatment and diagnosis of urological disorders is known as urologist.
Diseases and disorders
The genitourinary disorders are caused due to infections in the urinary tract, congenital anomalies and trauma to the urinary structure. Urogenital malformations including - hypospadias, labial fusion, epispadias and varicocele.
Acute or chronic renal failure (functional impairment of the kidney) can be categorised as pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal. Pre-renal failure is a condition developed due to impairment of supply of blood to the functional nephrons including renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. Post-renal failure refers to outlet blockage due to kidney stone or prostatic bladder outlet obstruction.
Non-renal urinary tract disease
Infection can be caused by bacteria, protozoa or fungi. Uncontrolled cell growth can result in neoplasia such as urinary tract infections, interstitial cystitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, incontinence, prostatitis, renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer.
Urinary tract cancers
The cancers throughout the urinary tract including kidney, prostate, bladder and testicular cancers are treated by urology doctor.
Tests, treatments, drugs and diagnose
Urologist performs physical exam and some tests such as CT scan, Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), sonogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prior to the treatment and surgery. Depending on the cause, type and severity of the urological disease and disorder, treatment is given to the patient. Surgeries are also performed to treat severe urinary infections and disorders. When to call urologist?
Patients are referred to urologists for the treatment and diagnosis of chronic and acute urological diseases and disorders.